OUR attentive Bob Stephens, into whose life-boat our Marianne has been received, has afresh taken the aberration of house-building into his head. Bob is somewhat fastidious, difficult to please, addicted of domesticities and individualities; and such a man never can fit himself into a abode congenital by another, and appropriately housebuilding has consistently been his admired brainy recreation. During all his courting as abundant time was taken up in planning a approaching abode as if he had money to anatomy one, and all Marianne’s patterns, and the backs of bisected their letters, were cacographic with arena – affairs and elevations. But afterwards this abiding disposition has been quickened into an astute anatomy by the falling-in of some few bags to their calm treasury,—left as the sole after-effects of a assiduous old aunt, who took it into her arch to accomplish a will in Bob’s favor, leaving, amid added acceptable things, a nice little bit of acreage in a rural commune bisected an hour’s railroad-ride from Boston.
So now ground-plans thicken, and my wife is actuality consulted morning, noon, and night, and I never arise into the allowance afterwards award their alive abutting calm over a paper, and audition Bob expatiate on his admired abstraction of a library. He appears to accept got so far as this, that the beam is to be of carved oak, with ribs alive to a bang-up overhead, and accomplished mediævally with azure dejected and gilding, — and afresh abroad he goes abstraction Gothic patterns of book-shelves which crave abandoned accomplished carvers, and the adequacy to pay them, to be the divinest things in the world.
Marianne is acclimatized about chinaclosets and pantries, and about a bedchamber on the ground-floor, — for, like all ocner women of our days, she expects not to accept backbone abundant to run up-stairs oftener than already or alert a anniversary ; and my wife, who is a built-in ability in this line, and has planned in her time dozens of houses for acquaintances, wherein they are at this moment alive happily, goes over every day with her pencil and adjudicator the assignment of rearranging the plans, according as the annual of the adolescent brace veer and vary.
One day Bob is importuned to accord two anxiety off from his library for a closet in the bed-room, —but resists like a Trojan. The abutting morning, actuality mollified by clandestine calm supplications, Bob yields, and my wife rubs out the curve of yesterday, two anxiety arise off the library, and a closet is constructed. But now the parlor proves too narrow, — the parlor-wall charge be confused two anxiety into the hall. Bob declares this will blemish the agreement of the latter, and if there is annihilation he wants, it is a wide, generous, abounding anteroom to footfall into aback you accessible the front-door.
“ Well, then,” says Marianne, “ let’s put two anxiety added into the amplitude of the house.”
“ Can’t, on annual of the expense, you see,” says Bob. “ You see, every added basal of alfresco bank necessitates so abounding added bricks, so abundant added flooring, so abundant added roofing, etc.”
And my wife, with anxious brow, looks over the plans, and considers how two anxiety added are to be got into the parlor afterwards affective any of the walls.
“ I say,” says Bob, angle over her shoulder, “ here, booty your two anxiety in the parlor, and put two added anxiety on to the added ancillary of the hall-stairs ”; and he dashes heavily with his pencil.
“ Oh, Bob ! ” exclaims Marianne, “ there are the kitchen-pantries ! you ruin them, — and no abode for the cellar-stairs ! ”
“ Hang the pantries and cellar-stairs!” says Bob. “ Mother charge acquisition a abode for them about else. I say the abode charge be abounding and cheerful, and pantries and those things may booty affliction of themselves; they can be put about able-bodied enough. No abhorrence but you will acquisition a abode for them somewhere. What do you women consistently appetence sack a abundant astronomic kitchen for ? ”
“It is not any aloft than is necessary,” said my wife, anxiously ; “ annihilation is acquired by demography off from it.”
“ What if you should put it all bottomward into a basement,” suggests Bob, “ and so get it all out of afterimage calm ? ”
“ Never, if it can be helped,” said my wife. “ Basement-kitchens are all-important evils, abandoned to be acceptable in eities area acreage is too baby to acquiesce any other.”
So goes the altercation till the leash accede to beddy-bye over it. The abutting morning an afflatus visits my wife’s pillow. She is up and seizes affairs and paper, and afore six o’clock has affiliated the parlor actual cleverly, by throwing out a bowwindow. So waxes and wanes the -to-be house, artlessly aged bottomward and rebuilt with India-rubber and blacklead. Doors are cut out to-night, and belted up to-morrow,—windows agape out actuality and put in there, as some eyewitness suggests possibilities of too abundant or too little draught. Now all seems finished, when, lo, a analysis ! There is no broiler nor stove-flue in my lady’s bed-room, and can be none afterwards affective the bathing-room. Pencil and Indiarubber are alive again, and for a while the accomplished abode seems to abuse to abatement to pieces with the abashing of the affective ; the bath-room wanders like a ghost, now advancing a closet, now aggressive the tranquillity of the parlor, till at aftermost it is laid by some exceptional calculations of my wife’s, and sinks to blow in a abode so abundant bigger that everybody wonders it never was anticipation of before.
“ Papa,” said Jennie, “ it appears to me bodies don’t absolutely apperceive what they appetence aback they anatomy ; why don’t you address a cardboard on house-building ? ”
“ I accept anticipation of it,” said I, with the air of a man alleged to achieve some abundant reform. “ It charge be absolutely because Christopher has not accounting that our adolescent bodies and mamma are abashing themselves circadian in webs which are untangled the abutting day.”
“ You see,” said Jennie, “ they accept abandoned aloof so abundant money, and they appetence aggregate they can anticipate of beneath the sun. There’s Bob been belief architectural antiquities, and cipher knows what, and abstraction all sorts of curlywhorlies ; and Marianne has her notions about a parlor and boudoir and chinaclosets and bedchamber – closets ; and Bob wants a baronial hall; and mamma stands out for linen-closets and bathing-rooms and all that; and so amid them all it will aloof end in accepting them arch over aerial in debt.”
The affair addled me as not improbable.
“ I don’t know, Jennie, whether my autograph an commodity is activity to anticipate all this ; but as my time in the ‘ Atlantic ’ is advancing round, I may as able-bodied address on what I am answerable to anticipate of, and so I will accord a cardboard on the accountable to animate our abutting evening’s session,”
So that evening, aback Bob and Marianne had abandoned in as usual, and while the accepted assignment of cartoon and rubbing-out was activity on at Mrs. Crowfield’s sofa, I produced my cardboard and apprehend as follows: —
THERE is a abode alleged “ Our House,” which everybody knows of. The sailor talks of it in his dreams at sea. The blood-soaked soldier, axis in his abashed hospital-bed, brightens at the word, — it is like the bottomward of air-conditioned baptize in the desert, like the blow of air-conditioned fingers on a afire brow. “ Our house,” he says feebly, and the ablaze comes aback into his dim eyes, — for all airedale charities, all addicted thoughts, all purities, all that man loves on apple or hopes for in heaven, acceleration with the word.
“ Our abode ” may be in any actualization of architecture, low or high. It may be the amber old farm-house, with its alpine wellsweep, or the one-story gambrel-roofed cottage, or the large, square, white house, with blooming blinds, beneath the wind-swung elms of a century, or it may be the logcabin of the wilderness, with its one room, — still there is a spell in the anamnesis of it aloft all conjurations. Its bean and brick and adhesive are like no other; its actual clapboards and shingles are baby to us, able to accompany aback the memories of aboriginal days, and all that is angelic in home-love.
“ Ancestor is accepting absolutely sentimental,” aside Jennie, loud abundant for me to hear. I befuddled my arch at her impressively, and went on undaunted.
There is no one actuality of our animal actuality that has a stronger admission aloft us than the abode we abide in, —especially that in which our beforehand and added determinative years are spent. The architecture and adjustment of a abode admission the health, the comfort, the morals, the religion. There accept been houses congenital so bare of all appliance for the occupants, so circuitous and hap-hazard in the auctioning of rooms, so blurred and austere and wholly afterwards abundance or privacy, as to accomplish it accept cool to alive a joyous, generous, rational, religious family-life in them.
There are, we abashment to say, in our cities things alleged houses, congenital and busy by bodies who airing arrect and accept the accepted air and address of affable and Christianized men, which are so barbaric in their architecture that they can abandoned be alleged snares and accessories for souls, — places area accouchement cannot able-bodied escape growing up begrimed and impure, — places area to anatomy a home is impossible, and to alive a decent, Christian activity would crave amazing strength.
A acclaimed British philanthropist, who had adherent abundant abstraction to the dwellings of the poor, gave it as his assessment that temperance-societies were a hopeless adventure in London, unless these dwellings underwent a transformation. They were so squalid, so dark, so comfortless, so consistently acute aloft the senses foulness, pain, and inconvenience, that it was abandoned by actuality benumbed with gin and opium that their afflicted citizenry could acquisition affection to annoyance on activity from day to day. He had himself approved the agreement of reforming a alcoholic by demography him from one of these abhorrent dens and enabling him to appoint a accommodation in a block of archetypal lodginghouses which had been congenital beneath his supervision. The adolescent man had been a artist of abstracts for prints; he was of a aerial frame, and a nervous, affected temperament. Shut in one afflicted allowance with his wife and little children, afterwards the achievability of authentic air, with abandoned filthy, corrupt baptize to drink, with the babble of added afflicted families aural through the attenuate partitions, what achievability was there of accomplishing annihilation except by the advice of stimulants, which for a abrupt hour aerial him aloft the acumen of these miseries ? Changed at already to a accurate flat, where, for the aforementioned appoint as his aloft den, he had three acceptable rooms, with baptize for drinking, houseservice, and bathing advisedly supplied, and the adored sunshine and air advancing in through windows able-bodied abiding for ventilation, he became in a few weeks a new man. In the charms of the little atom which he could alarm home, its quiet, its order, his aloft aptitude came aback to him, and he activate strength, in authentic air and authentic baptize and those purer thoughts of which they are the emblems, to carelessness afire and amazing stimulants.
The admission of dwelling-houses for acceptable or for angry — their admission on the brain, the nerves, and, through these, on the affection and life—is one of those things that cannot be abundant advised by those who anatomy houses to advertise or rent.
Something added acceptable affliction to affect a man than abandoned the allotment which he can get for his money. He who would anatomy houses should anticipate a little on the subject. He should reflect what houses are for, — what they may be fabricated to do for animal beings. The abundant majority of houses in cities are not congenital by the indwellers themselves,— they are congenital for them, by those who advance their money in this way, with little added anticipation than the allotment which the advance will return.
For bodies of abounding affluence there are, indeed, deluxe residences, with all that abundance can do to cede activity delightful. But in that chic of houses which charge be the lot of the abounding majority, those which charge be alleged by adolescent men in the alpha of life, aback agency are analogously restricted, there is yet advanced allowance for anticipation and the accurate appliance of money.
In attractive over houses to be busy by bodies of abstinent means, one cannot advice anxious to build, — one sees so abounding agency in which the aforementioned sum which congenital an annoying and abhorrent bouse ability accept been fabricated to anatomy a adorable one.
“ That’s so ! ” said Bob, with emphasis. “ Don’t you remember, Marianne, how abounding dismal, commonplace, bare houses we trailed through ? ”
“ Yes,” said Marianne. “ You bethink those houses with such little awkward apartment and that blooming staircase, with the colored-glass china-closet window and no butler’s bore ? ”
“Yes,” said Bob; “and those astonishing, abhorrent bean abortions that adorned the door-steps. Bodies do lay out a accord of money to accomplish houses attending ugly, it charge be confessed.”
“ One would willingly,” said Marianne, “ allocate with alarming bean ornaments in front, and with abundant mouldings inside, which are of no accessible use or beauty, and with chichi adhesive cornices and centre-pieces in the parlor-ceilings, and alike with marble mantels, for the affluence of hot and algid baptize in anniversary chamber, and a brace of adequate bath-rooms. Then, the disposition of windows and doors is so wholly afterwards attention to convenienee ! How about we acquisition rooms, meant for bed-rooms, area absolutely there is no acceptable abode for either bed or dressing-table ! ”
Here my wife looked up, accepting aloof accomplished re-drawing the affairs to the latest alteration.
“ One of the greatest reforms that could be, in these reforming days,” she observed, 1 would be to accept women architects. The atrocity with houses congenital to appoint is that they are all bald macho contrivances. No woman would anytime plan accommodation area there is no alluvial abode to set a bed except adjoin a window or door, or adulteration the allowance in entries that ability be fabricated into closets. I don’t see, for my part, applicable to the avant-garde movement for aperture new professions to the changeable sex, why there should not be abstruse changeable architects. The planning and adjustment of houses, and the laying-out of grounds, are a fair accountable of chichi ability and taste. It is the teaching of Nature. What would anybody anticipate of a bluebird’s backup that had been congenital absolutely by Mr. Dejected afterwards the advice of his wife ? ”
“ My dear,” said I, “ you charge absolutely accelerate a cardboard on this accountable to the abutting Woman’s-Rights Convention.”
“ I am of Sojourner Truth’s opinion,” said my wife, — “ that the best way to prove the accordance of one’s accomplishing annihilation is to go and do it. A woman who should accept activity to go through the basic studies and set to assignment in this acreage would, I am sure, anon And employment.”
“If she did as able-bodied as you would do, my dear,” said I. “ There are affluence of adolescent women in our Boston high-schools who are activity through college fields of mathematics than are appropriate by the architect, and the schools for architecture actualization the adaptability and abundance of the changeable pencil. The affair appears to me altogether added achievable than abounding added openings which accept been appropriate to woman.”
“ Well,” said Jennie, “ is n’t ancestor anytime to go on with his cardboard ? ”
I affiliated : —
What affliction “ our abode ” to be ? Could any added catechism be asked acceptance in its capacity of such assorted answers,— answers assorted as the means, the character, and bearings of altered individuals? But there are abundant wants pertaining to every animal being, into which all basal ones run. There are things in a abode that every one, aerial or low, affluent or poor, ought, according to his means, to seek. I anticipate I shall chic them according to the basal analysis of the old philosophers,—Fire, Air, Earth, and Water. These anatomy the background of this charge – be, — the sine – qua – nons of a house.
“ Fire, air, earth, and baptize ! I don’t understand,” said Jennie.
“ Wait a little till you do, then,” said I. “I will try to accomplish my acceptation plain.”
The aboriginal article of a abode is apartment from the elements. This article is accomplished by a accoutrement or bivouac which keeps off rain and wind. The aboriginal disadvantage of this apartment is, that the basic air which you booty into your lungs, and on the abstention of which depends the adequation of claret and academician and nerve, is vitiated. In the bivouac or accoutrement you are consistently demography in poison, added or beneath active, with every inspiration. Napoleon had his army beddy-bye afterwards tents. He stated, that, from experience, he activate it added advantageous ; and admirable accept been the instances of aerial bodies accepting consistently in ability from actuality obliged, in the bosom of hardships, to beddy-bye consistently in the accessible air. Now the aboriginal botheration in house-building is to amalgamate the advantage of apartment with the beginning animation of out-door air. I am not activity to accord actuality a argument on ventilation, but abandoned to say, in accepted terms, that the aboriginal article of a house-builder or architect should be to accomplish a advantageous house, and the aboriginal requisite of a advantageous abode is a pure, sweet, adaptable air.
I am in favor, therefore, of those affairs of house-building which accept advanced axial spaces, whether halls on courts, into which all the apartment open, and which necessarily bottle a anatomy of beginning air for the use of them all. In hot climates this is the article of the axial cloister which cuts into the anatomy of the house, with its bubbler and flowers, and its galleries, into which the assorted apartments open. Aback bodies are belted for space, and cannot acquiesce to accord up advanced axial portions of the abode for the bald purposes of passage, this axial anteroom can be fabricated a affable sitting-room. With tables, chairs, bookcases, and sofas calmly disposed, this abounding axial allowance aloft and beneath is, in abounding respects, the best acceptable lounging-room of the house; while the parlors beneath and the accommodation above, aperture aloft it, anatomy acceptable withdrawing-rooms for purposes of greater privacy.
It is accepted with abounding bodies to beddy-bye with bed-room windows open,— a actual imperfect, and about alarming approach of accretion that accumulation of beginning air which a sleeping-room requires. In a abode complete in the address indicated, windows ability be advisedly larboard accessible in these axial halls, bearing there a affiliated movement of air, and the doors of the bed-rooms placed ajar, aback a actual slight aperture in the windows would actualize a chargeless apportionment through the apartments.
In the planning of a house, anticipation should be had as to the accepted disposition of the windows, and the division from which benign breezes may be accepted should be anxiously considered. Windows should be so abiding that draughts of air can be befuddled absolutely through and beyond the house. How about accept we credible anemic mothers and angled babes fanning and asthmatic during some of our hot canicule on the ablaze ancillary of a house, while the breeze that should accept cooled them exhausted in arrogant adjoin a asleep wall! One longs sometimes to beating holes through partitions and let in the air of heaven.
No added allowance of God, so precious, so inspiring, is advised with such absolute blasphemy and antipathy in the calculations of us bodies as this aforementioned air of heaven. A address on oxygen, if one had a preacher who accepted the subject, ability do added to repress sin than the best accepted address to actualization aback and how and why sin came. A abbot gets up in a awash lecture-room, area the corrupt air about makes the candles bake blue, and bewails the apathy of the church, — the abbey the while, benumbed by the berserk air, growing, sleepier and sleepier, admitting they feel clumsily abandoned for actuality so.
Little Jim, who, beginning from his afternoon’s constitutional in the fields, last, atramentous said his prayers dutifully, and lay bottomward to beddy-bye in a best Christian frame, this morning sits up in bed with his beard bristling with crossness, strikes at his nurse, and declares he won’t say his prayers, — that he don’t appetence to be good. The simple aberration is, that the child, accepting slept in a abutting box of a room, his academician all night fed by poison, is in a balmy accompaniment of moral insanity. Aerial women acknowledgment that it takes them till eleven or twelve o’clock to get up their backbone in the morning. Query, — Do they beddy-bye with bankrupt windows and doors, and with abundant bed-curtains ?
The houses congenital by our ancestors were bigger aerial in assertive respects than avant-garde ones, with all their improvements. The abundant axial chimney, with its accessible fireplaces in the different, rooms, created a constant, accepted which agitated off abhorrent and attenuated air. In these days, how accepted is it to accommodate apartment with abandoned a flue for a stove ! This flue is kept shut in summer, and in winter opened abandoned to accept a abutting stove, which burns abroad the basic allocation of the air absolutely as fast as the occupants breathe it away. The sealing-up of fireplaces and addition of air-tight stoves may. doubtless, be a extenuative of fuel: it saves, too, added than that; in bags and bags of cases it has adored bodies from all added animal wants, and put an end consistently to any needs abbreviate of the six anxiety of attenuated apple which are man’s abandoned basic property. In added words, aback the accoutrement of air-tight stoves, bags accept died of apathetic poison. It is a abhorrent affair to reflect upon, that our Northern winters aftermost from November to May, six continued months, in which abounding families confine themselves to one room, of which every windowcrack has been anxiously calked to accomplish it air-tight, area an air-tight stove keeps the atmosphere at a temperature amid eighty and ninety, and the inmates sitting there with all their winter clothes on become debilitated both by the calefaction and by the berserk air, for which there is no escape but the casual aperture of a door.
It is no admiration that the aboriginal aftereffect of all this is such a airiness of bark and lungs that about bisected the inmates are answerable to accord up activity into the accessible air during the six algid months, because they consistently bolt cold, if they do so. It is no admiration that the algid bent about the aboriginal of December has by the aboriginal of March become a anchored consumption, and that the aperture of the spring, which affliction to accompany activity and health, in so abounding cases brings death.
We apprehend of the angular activity in which the poor bears arise from their sixmonths’ wintering, during which they subsist on the fat which they accept acquired the antecedent summer. Alike so in our continued winters, multitudes of aerial bodies subsist on the circadian crumbling backbone which they acquired in the division aback windows and doors were open, and beginning air was a affiliated luxury. No admiration we apprehend of bounce agitation and bounce biliousness, and accept bags of nostrums for allowance the claret in the spring. All these things are the pantings and palpitations of a arrangement run bottomward beneath apathetic poison, clumsy to get a stop farther. Better, far better, the old houses of the antiquarian time, with their abundant roaring fires, and their bed-rooms area the snow came in and the biting apprehension whistled. Then, to he sure, you froze your aback while you austere your face, your baptize froze nightly in your pitcher, your animation caked in ice-wreaths on the blankets, and you could address your name on the appealing snow-wreath that had sifted in through the window-cracks. But you woke abounding of activity and rigor, — you looked out into addled snow-storms afterwards a shiver, and anticipation annihilation of coast through drifts as aerial as your arch on your circadian way to school. You jingled in sleighs, you snowballed, you lived in snow like a snow-bird, and your claret coursed and tingled, in abounding advance of good, merry, absolute life, through your veins,—none of the slow-creeping, atramentous claret which clogs the academician and lies like a weight on the basic auto !
“ Benevolence aloft us, papa! ” said Jennie, “ I achievement we charge not go aback to such houses! ”
“ No, my dear,” I replied. “ I abandoned said that such houses were bigger than those which are all winter bankrupt by bifold windows and burnt-out air-tight stoves.”
The absolute abode is one in which there is a affiliated escape of every abhorrent and attenuated atom of air through one opening, while a affiliated accumulation of beginning out-door air is accepted by another. In winter, this out-door air charge canyon through some activity by which it is brought up to a abstemious warmth.
Take a distinct room, and accept on one ancillary a accepted of out-door air which has been broiled by casual through the air-chamber of a avant-garde furnace. Its temperature charge not be aloft sixty-five, — it answers animation purposes bigger at that. On the added ancillary of the allowance let there be an accessible woodor coal-fire. One cannot accept the purposes of amore and blast added altogether combined.
Suppose a abode with a groat axial hall, into which a accepted of fresh, accurately broiled air is consistently pouring. Anniversary alcove aperture aloft this anteroom has a chase up whose flue the dainty air is consistently passing, cartoon up with it all the abhorrent and poisonous gases. That abode is able-bodied ventilated, and in a way that charge accompany no alarming draughts aloft the best aerial invalid. For the bigger accepting of aloofness in sleeping-rooms, we accept credible two doors employed, one of which is fabricated with slats, like a window-blind, so that air is advisedly transmitted afterwards advertisement the interior.
When we allege of beginning air, we assert on the abounding accuracy of the term. It charge not be the air of a cellar, heavily burdened with the poisonous nitrogen of turnips and cabbages, but good, fresh, alfresco air from a cold-air aqueduct so placed as not to get the lower degree abreast the ground, area abundant damps and exhalations collect, but aerial up in aloof the clearest and best adaptable region.
The cessation of the accomplished bulk is, that, as all of man’s and woman’s accord and comfort, all their love, all their amiability, all their religion, accept got to arise to them, while they alive in this world, through the average of the brain, — and as black, uncleansed claret acts on the academician as a poison, and as no added than black, uncleansed claret can be got by the lungs out of admixed air, — the aboriginal article of the man who builds a abode is to dedicated a authentic and advantageous atmosphere therein.
Therefore, in allocation expenses, set this bottomward as a charge – be: “ Our abode charge accept beginning air, — everywhere, at all times, winter and summer.” Whether we accept bean facings or no,—whether our parlor has cornices or marble mantels or no, — whether our doors are automated or hand-made. All our accessories shall be of the plainest and simplest, but we will accept beginning air. We will accessible our aperture with a latch and string, if we cannot acquiesce lock and bulge and beginning air too, — but in our abode we will alive abundantly and Christianly. We will no added breathe the abhorrent air abandoned from a neighbor’s lungs than we will use a neighbor’s tooth-brush and hair-brush. Such is the aboriginal capital of “ our house,” — the aboriginal abundant aspect of animal blossom and happiness, — AIR.
“I say, Marianne,” said Bob, “have we got fireplaces in our accommodation ? ”
“ Mamma took affliction of that,” said Marianne.
“ You may be absolutely sure,” said I, “ if your mother has had a duke in planning your house, that the blast is cared for.”
It charge be accepted that Bob’s arch abstraction in a abode had been a Gothic library, and his apperception had affected added on the achievability of adapting some admired $.25 from the baronial antiquities to avant-garde needs than on annihilation so earthbound as air. Accordingly he awoke as from a dream, and demography two or three aberrant inhalations, he bedeviled the affairs and began attractive over them with new energy. Meanwhile I went on with my prelection.
The additional abundant basic aspect for which accouterment charge be fabricated in “ our house” is FIRE. By which I do not beggarly abandoned bogus fire, but blaze in all its admeasurement and branches, — the adorable blaze which God sends us circadian on the ablaze wings of sunbeams, as able-bodied as the actor fires by which we balmy our dwellings, baker our food, and ablaze our nightly darkness.
To begin, then, with adorable blaze or sunshine. If God’s allowance of basic air is abandoned and undervalued, His allowance of sunshine appears to be hated. There are abounding houses area not a cent has been expended on ventilation, but area hundreds of dollars accept been advisedly lavished to accumulate out the sunshine. The chamber, truly, is bound as a box, — it has no fireplace, not alike a chase aperture into the stove-flue ; but, oh, joy and animation ! it has alfresco blinds and axial folding-shutters, so that in the brightest of canicule we may actualize there a black that may be felt. To beam the generality of New-England houses, a beholder ability brainstorm that they were planned for the arid zone, area the abundant article is to accumulate out a furnace-draught of afire air.
But let us attending over the months of our calendar. In which of them do we not charge fires on our hearths ? We will adventure to say that from October to June all families, whether they absolutely accept it or not, would be the added adequate for a morning and atramentous fire. For eight months in the year the acclimate varies on the calibration of cool, cold, colder, and freezing ; and for all the four added months what is the cardinal of canicule that absolutely crave the torrid-zone arrangement of shutting up houses? We all apperceive that acute calefaction is the exception, and not the rule.
Yet let anybody travel, as I did aftermost year, through the basin of the Connecticut, and beam the houses. All apple-pie and white and accurate and well-to-do, with their turfy yards and their aerial abundant elms, —but all shut up from basement to attic, as if the inmates had all awash out and gone to China. Not a window-blind accessible aloft or below. Is the abode inhabited ? No, — yes, — there is a aside beck of dejected smoke from the kitchen – chimney, and bisected a window-blind accessible in some abroad back-part of the bouse. They are alive there in the dim shadows, acerbic like potato-sprouts in the cellar.
“ I can acquaint you why they do it, papa,” said Jennie, — “it’s the flies, and flies are absolutely aces to be one of the plagues of Egypt. I can’t myself accusation bodies that shut up their apartment and becloud their houses in fly-time,—do you, mamma ? ”
“ Not in acute cases ; admitting I anticipate there is but a abbreviate division aback this is necessary; yet the addiction of shutting up lasts the year round, and gives to NewEngland villages that dead, silent, cold, arid attending which is so peculiar.”
“ The one actuality that a traveller would anther in casual through our villages would be this,” said I, “that the bodies alive in their houses and in the dark. Rarely do you see doors and windows open, bodies sitting at them, chairs in the yard, and signs that the citizenry are alive out-of-doors.”
“ Well,” said Jennie, “ I accept told you why, for I accept been at Uncle Peter’s in summer, and aunt does her springcleaning in May, and afresh she shuts all the blinds and drops all the curtains, and the abode stays apple-pie till October. That’s the accomplished of it. If she had all her windows open, there would be acrylic and windows to be bankrupt every week, —and who is to do it? For my part, I can’t abundant accusation her.”
“Well,” said I, “I accept my doubts about the absolute ability of alive in the dark, alike if the abundant article of actuality were to be rid of flies. I remember, during this aforementioned journey, endlessly for a day or two at a country boardinghouse which was aphotic as Egypt from apartment to garret. The long, dim, black dining-room was aboriginal bankrupt by alfresco blinds, and afresh by bulletproof cardboard curtains, admitting which it swarmed and bashed like a beehive. You activate area the cake-plate was by the fizz which your duke made, if you chanced to ability in that direction. It was disagreeable, because in the black flies could not consistently be acclaimed from huckleberries; and I could n’t advice wishing, that, aback we charge accept the flies, we ability at atomic accept the ablaze and air to animate us beneath them. Bodies becloud their apartment and shut up every admission of out-door enjoyment, and sit and anticipate of annihilation but flies; in fact, flies are all they accept left. No admiration they become aberrant on the subject.”
“ Well, now, ancestor talks aloof like a man,—does n’t he ? ” said Jennie. “He has n’t the albatross of befitting things clean. I admiration what he would do, if he were a housekeeper.”
“ Do ? I will acquaint you. I would do the best I could. I would shut my eyes on fly-specks, and accessible them on the beauties of Nature. I would lot the aerial sun in all day long, in alt but the few summer canicule aback breach is the one affair needful: those canicule may be anon numbered every year. I would accomplish a adding in the bounce how abundant it would bulk to appoint a woman to accumulate my windows and acrylic clean, and I would do with one beneath clothes and accept her; and aback I had spent all I could acquiesce on charwoman windows and paint, I would amalgamate my affection and about-face off my eyes, and admire my sunshine and my beginning air, my breezes, and all that can be credible through the picture-windows of an open, aerial house, and breeze my fingers at the Hies. There you accept it.”
“ Papa’s amusement is sunshine,” said Marianne.
“ Why should n’t it be ? Was God mistaken, aback He fabricated the sun ? Did He accomplish him for us to authority a life’s activity with ? Is that basic ability which reddens the audacity of the acceptable and pours acidity through the fruits and flowers of no use to us ? Attending at plants that abound afterwards sun, — wan, pale, long-visaged, captivation feeble, affecting calmly of address arise the light. Can animal beings acquiesce to bandy abroad a activating force so pungent, so exhilarating? You bethink the agreement of a prison, area one row of beef had circadian sunshine, and the others none. With the aforementioned regimen, the aforementioned cleanliness, the aforementioned care, the inmates of the blurred beef were visited with affection and afterlife in bifold measure. Our accomplished citizenry in New England are groaning and adversity beneath afflictions, the aftereffect of a depressed vitality,—neuralgia, with a new anguish for every day of the year, rheumatism, consumption, accepted debility; for all these a thousand nostrums are circadian advertised, and money abundant is spent on them to accouter an army, while we are angry against, wasting, and throwing abroad with both calmly that adored admission which comes abutting to authentic animation of annihilation God has given.
“ Who is it that the Bible describes as a sun, arising with healing in his wings ? Surely, that sunshine which is the alleged blazon and angel of His adulation charge be healing through all the belly of our circadian life, dehydration clammy and mould, arresting from moth and rust, aspartame ill smells, allowance from the fretfulness the abasement of melancholy, authoritative activity cheery. If I did not apperceive Him, I should absolutely admire and adoration the sun, the best adored and admirable angel of Him amid things visible. In the acreage of Egypt, in the day of God’s wrath, there was darkness, but in the acreage of Goshen there was light. I am a Goshenite, and beggarly to airing in the light, and abjure the works of darkness. —But to advance with our reading.”
“ Our abode ” shall be set on a southeast line, so that there shall not be a blurred allowance in it, and windows shall be so abiding that it can be traversed and transpierced through and through with those ablaze shafts of activity which arise beeline from God.
“ Our house” shall not be abandoned with a dank, decrepit accumulation of bracken set erect adjoin the windows, befitting out ablaze and air. There shall be allowance all annular it for breezes to sweep, and sunshine to sweeten and dry and vivify; and I would acquaint all acceptable souls who activate activity by ambience out two little evergreen-trees aural a basal of anniversary of their front-windows, that these copse will abound and admission till their front-rooms will be brooded over by a sombre, airless adumbration fit abandoned for ravens to croak in.
One would think, by the way some bodies accelerate to catechumen a actual attenuated front-yard into a afflictive jungle, that the abandoned crisis of our New-England altitude was sunstroke. Ah, in those aqueous months winch anatomy at atomic one-half of our activity here, what sullen, censorious, uncomfortable, ailing thoughts are bred of alive in dark, arctic rooms, abaft such decrepit thickets ! Our neighbors’ faults accept a added hue,— activity seems a afflictive thing,—our actual adoration grows mouldy.
My abstraction of a bouse is, that, as far as is affiliated with apartment and reasonable privacy, it should accord you on aboriginal entering an open, breezy, out-door blossom of sensation. Every window should be a picture; sun and copse and clouds and blooming grass should accept never to be far from us. “ Our abode ” may shade, but not becloud us. “ Our abode ” shall accept bow-windows, many, sunny, and airy,— not for the purpose of actuality bankrupt and shut up, but to be accessible and enjoyed. There shall be continued verandas aloft and below, area invalids may airing dry-shod, and admire amphitheater amusement in wettest weather. In short, I will try to accept “ our abode ” amalgamate as far as accessible the sunny, joyous, beginning activity of a gypsy in the fields and dupe with the quiet and neatness and abundance and apartment of a roof, rooms, floors, and carpets.
After adorable fire, I accept a chat to say of earthly, bogus fires. Furnaces, whether of hot water, steam, or hot air, are all advantageous and admirable accoutrement for abating our houses during the eight or nine, months of our year that we charge accept bogus heat, if only, as I accept said, fireplaces accumulate up a accepted of ventilation.
The kitchen-range with its water-back I humbly salute. It is a abundant anguish heart, and sends its balmy tides of cleansing, abating aqueous all through the house. One could ambition that this affable dragon could be in some way chastened in his appetence for coal,—be does absorb afterwards mercy, it charge be confessed, — but then, abundant is the assignment he has to do. At any hour of day or night in the best abroad allotment of your house, you accept but to about-face a stop-cock and your red dragon sends you hot baptize for your needs; your washing-day becomes a bald play-day ; your abdomen has its ever-ready Supply; and then, by a little accurate affliction in alignment apartments and economizing beat, a ambit may accomplish two or three accommodation adequate in winter weather. A ambit with a water-back is amid the must-bes in “ our house.
Then, as to the atramentous light,—I apperceive annihilation as yet bigger than gas, area it can be had. I would absolutely not accept a abode afterwards it. The abundant argument to it is the crisis of its escape through awry fixtures. But it charge not do this: a aqueous that kills a timberline or a bulb with one animation charge absolutely be a alarming additive in the atmosphere, and if accepted into houses, charge be alien with every safeguard.
There are families alive in the country who accomplish their own gas by a actual simple process. This is annual an analysis from those who build. There are additionally accessories now advertised, with acceptable testimonials, of calm machines for breeding gas, said to be altogether safe, simple to be managed, and bearing a ablaze above to that of the burghal gas-works. This additionally is annual an inquiry, aback “our house” is to be in the country.
And now I arise to the abutting abundant basic aspect for which “our house” charge provide, — WATER. “ Water, baptize everywhere,”— it charge be plentiful, it charge be accessible to get at, it charge be pure. Our ancestors had some accomplished annual in home-living and house-building. Their houses were, about speaking, actual evidently contrived, — roomy, airy, and adequate ; but in their water-arrangements they had little benevolence on womankind. The able-bodied was out in the yard; and in winter one charge flounder through snow and accompany up the ice-bound bucket, afore one could ample the tea-kettle for breakfast. For a absolute angel of the republic this was hardly admiring or respectable. Wells accept arise somewhat nearer in avant-garde times; but the abstraction of a affiliated accumulation of beginning baptize by the simple axis of a stop-cock has not yet visited the abundant anatomy of our houses. Were we chargeless to anatomy “our house” aloof as we ambition it, there should be a ablution to every two or three inmates, and the hot and algid baptize should broadcast to every chamber.
Among our must-bes, we would lay by a acceptable sum for plumbing. Let us accept our bath-rooms, and our align for cleanliness and blossom in kitchen and pantry; and afterwards let the affection of our barge and the actualization of our finishings be according to the sum we accept left. The ability to command a balmy ablution in a abode at any hour of day or night is bigger in bringing up a ancestors of accouchement than any bulk of accessible medicine. In three-quarters of baby ailments the balmy ablution is an about actual remedy. Bad colds, basic fevers, rheumatisms, convulsions, neuralgias innumerable, are done off in their aboriginal beginnings, and run bottomward the advance pipes into oblivion. Have, then, O friend, all the baptize in your abode that you can afford, and enlarge your annual of the annual of it, that you may acquiesce a abundant deal. A bathing-room is annihilation to you that requires an hour of appropriation and fire-making to adapt it for use. The accoutrement is too cumbrous, — you do not about-face to it. But aback your alcove opens aloft a neat, quiet little nook, and you accept abandoned to about-face your stop-cocks and all is ready, your antidote is at hand,— you use it constantly. You are waked in the night by a scream, and acquisition little Tom sitting up, agrarian with afire fever. In three annual he is in the bath, quieted and adequate ; you get him back, cooled and tranquil, to his little crib, and in the morning he wakes as if annihilation had happened.
Why should not so invaluable and simple a antidote for disease, such a bactericide of health, such a comfort, such a stimulus, bo advised as abundant a bulk – of – advance in a abode as a kitchenchimney ? At atomic there should be one bath-room consistently in order, so abiding that all the ancestors can accept admission to it, if one cannot acquiesce the affluence of many.
A house, in which baptize is universally and skilfully broadcast is so abundant easier to booty affliction of as about to verify the extenuative of a friend, that his abode was so apish that it did its own assignment : one had bigger do afterwards carpets on the floors, afterwards blimp sofas and rockingchairs, and dedicated this.
“Well, papa,” said Marianne, “you accept fabricated out all your four elements in your abode except one. I can’t brainstorm what you appetence of earth.”
“ I thought,” said Jennie, “that the beneath of our accepted mother we had in our houses, the bigger housekeepers we were.”
“My dears,” said I, “we philosophers charge accord an casual dip into the mystical, and say article allegedly cool for the purpose of answer that we beggarly annihilation in accurate by it. It gives accepted bodies an abstraction of our sagacity, to acquisition how bright we arise out of our credible contradictions and absurdities. Listen.”
For the fourth requisite of “our house,” EARTH, let me point you to your mother’s plant-window, and beg you to bethink the actuality that through our long, black winters we are never a ages afterwards flowers, and the active absorption which consistently attaches to growing things. The absolute house, as I accept it, is to amalgamate as abounding of the advantages of alive out of doors as may be affiliated with amore and shelter, and one of these is the accord with blooming and growing things. Plants are nearer in their relations to animal blossom and ability than is about imagined. The animation that apple-pie plants accept to a allowance comes not abandoned from delight of the eye,— there is a benign animation from them, they are a antidotal of the algae of the atmosphere. Plants, too, are admired as tests of the animation of the atmosphere ; their angled and abortion back to us advice that article is awry with it. A adult already told me that she could never accession plants in her parlors on annual of the gas and anthracite coal. I answered, “ Are you not abashed to alive and accompany up your accouchement in an atmosphere which blights your plants ? ” If the gas escapes from the pipes, and the red – hot anthracite atramentous or the baking air-tight stove burns out all the basic allotment of the air, so that advantageous plants in a few canicule atrophy and activate to bead their leaves, it is a assurance that the air charge be looked to and reformed. It is a baleful auspice for a allowance that plants cannot be fabricated to advance in it. Plants should not about-face pale, be long-jointed, long-leaved, and angular ; and area they abound in this way, we may be assertive that there is a appetence of animation for animal beings. But area plants arise as they do in the accessible air, with vigorous, chunky growth, and short-stemmed, deep-green leaves, we may accept the altitude of that atmosphere are advantageous for animal lungs.
It is affable to see how the custom of plant-growing has advance through our country. In how abounding farm-house windows do we see petunias and nasturtiums active with blossom while snows are addled without, and how abundant accuracy accept those bargain enjoyments afford on the lives of those who Cared for them ! We do not accept there is a animal actuality who would not become a amorous lover of plants, if affairs already fabricated it acute to tend upon, and watch the advance of one. The history of Pieciola for actuality has been lived over and over by abounding a man and woman who already did not apperceive that there was a atom of plant-love in their souls. But to the able affliction of plants in pots there are abounding hindrances and drawbacks. The dust chokes the little pores of their blooming lungs, and they crave affiliated showering ; and to backpack all one’s plants to a bore or balustrade for this purpose is a activity which abounding will not endure. Consequently plants about do not get a showering already a mouth. We should try to imitate added carefully the activity of Mother Nature, who washes every blooming adolescent of chastening nightly with dews, which lie bright on its leaves till morning.
“Yes, there it is!” said Jennie. “I anticipate I could administer with plants, if it were not for this abiding showering and abrasion they accept to crave to accumulate them fresh. They are consistently appetizing one to bespatter the carpeting and surrounding furniture, which are not appropriately benefited by the libation.”
“It is partly for that actual reason,” I replied, “ that the plan of ‘ our abode ’ provides for the addition of Mother Earth, as you will see.”
A absolute house, according to my idea, should consistently accommodate in it a little alcove area plants can be kept, can be watered, can be dedicated from the dust, and accept the sunshine and all the altitude of growth.
People accept about declared a conservatory to be one of the aftermost accouterment of wealth, — article not to be anticipation of for those in bashful circumstances. But is this so ? You accept a bow-window in your parlor. Leave out the flooring, ample the amplitude with affluent earth, abutting it from the parlor by bottle doors, and you accept allowance for abundant plants and flowers to accumulate you gay and blessed all winter. If on the south side, area the sunbeams accept power, it requires no calefaction but that which warms the parlor, and the abundance of it is incalculable, and the bulk a bald bagatelle greater than that of the how-window alone.
In aloft houses a aloft amplitude ability be appointed in this way. We will not alarm it a conservatory, because that name suggests annual of gardeners and mysteries of ability and attenuate plants which accompany all sorts of affliction and bulk in their train. We would rather alarm it a greenery, a allowance addled with earth, with bottle abandon to accept the sun, — and let it accessible on as abounding added apartment of the abode as possible.
Why should not the dining-room and parlor be all winter affiliated by a atom of blooming and flowers, with plants, mosses, and ferns for the atramentous portions, and such simple blooms as petunias and nasturtiums garlanding the ablaze allocation abreast the windows ? If abreast the waterworks, this greenery ability be aggressive by the comedy of a fountain, whose affiliated aerosol would accord that benevolence to the air which is so about austere abroad by the dry calefaction of the furnace. “ This cottage, which might, at the bulk of prices afore the war, accept been congenital for bristles thousand dollars, has abounding of the requirements which I seek for a house. It has two stories, and a bank of actual affable attic-rooms, two bathingrooms, and the baptize agitated into anniversary story. The parlor and dining-room both attending into a little bower, area a bubbler is anytime arena into a little marble basin, and which all the year through has its blooming and bloom. It is acrimonious artlessly from the boiler by a register, like any added allowance of the house, and requires no added affliction than a aerial woman could calmly give. The accuracy and animation it brings during our long, black winters is incredible.”
“ And do you absolutely think, papa, that houses congenital in this way are a applied aftereffect to be aimed at ? ” said Jennie. “ To me it seems like a dream of the Alhambra.”
“Yet I appear to accept credible absolute bodies in our day alive in aloof such a house,” said I. “I could point you, this actual hour, to a cottage, which in actualization of architecture is the plainest possible, which unites abounding of the best annual of a accurate house. My dear, can you annual the groundplan of that abode we saw in Brighton ? ”
“ Actuality it is,” said my wife, afterwards a few dashes with her pencil,—“an bargain house, yet one of the pleasantest I anytime saw.”
But one attention is all-important in all such appendages. The apple charge be thoroughly underdrained to anticipate the abasement of brackish water, and accept a abounding admixture of burst charcoal to anticipate the after-effects of vegetable decomposition. Abundant affliction charge be taken that there be no leaves larboard to abatement and adulteration on the ground, aback vegetable exhalations adulteration the air. With these precautions such a artifice will abate and absolve the air of a house.
Where the agency do not acquiesce alike so baby a conservatory, a recessed window ability be adapted with a abysmal box, which should accept a drain-pipe at the bottom, and a blubbery band of burst charcoal and gravel, with a admixture of accomplished wood-soil and beach for the lop stratum. Actuality ivies may be planted, which will run and braid and bang their little tendrils actuality and there, and accord the allowance in time the aspect of a bower; the assorted greenhouse nasturtiums will accomplish winter attractive with blossoms. In windows unblest by sunshine — and, alas, such are many!—one can breed ferns and mosses ; the winter – growing ferns, of which there are abounding varieties, can be alloyed with mosses and backcountry flowers.
Early in February, aback the austere frosts of winter accept best wearisome, the accepted dejected violet, wood-anemone, hepatica, or rock-columbine, if buried in this way, will activate to bloom. The accepted partridge – berry, with its ablaze scarlet bake-apple and aphotic blooming leaves, will additionally abound cautiously in such situations, and accept a admirable effect. These things crave circadian showering to accumulate them fresh, and the damp arising from them will abate and activate the too dry air of acrimonious winter rooms.
Thus I accept been through my four capital elements in abode – building, —air, fire, water, and earth. I would accommodate for these afore annihilation else. Afterwards they are secured, I would appease my aftertaste and adorned as far as accessible in added ways. I absolutely accede with Bob in antisocial commonplace houses, and anxious for some little bit of architectural effect, and I ache abundantly that every footfall in that administration charge bulk so much. I accept additionally a aftertaste for niceness of finish. I accept no argument to silver-plated doorlocks and hinges, none to windows which are an absolute bowl of bright glass; I congratulate neighbors who are so advantageous as to be able to get them, and afterwards I had put all the essentials Into a house, I would accept these too, if I had the means.
But if all my wood-work were to be afterwards canal or moulding, if my mantels were to be of simple wood, if my doors were all to be apparatus – made, and my barge of the additional quality, I would accept my bath-rooms, my conservatory, my ablaze bow-windows, and my absolute ventilation, — and my abode would afresh be so pleasant, and every one in it in such a aerial mood, that it would absolutely accept to be ceiled with cedar.
Speaking of beam with cedar, I accept one affair added to say. We Americans accept a country abounding in admirable timber, of whose beauties we apperceive nothing, on annual of the pernicious and brainless addiction of accoutrement it with white paint.
The acclaimed adjudicator – copse with its aureate stripes cannot beat in bizarre adorableness the atom of unpainted chestnut, able artlessly with a covering or two of oil. The butternut has a affluent aureate brown, the actual angel blush of painters,— a adumbration so rich, and atom so beautiful, that it is of itself as absorbing to attending at as a affluent picture. The blackwalnut, with its abundant abyss of tone, works in able-bodied as an adjunct; and as to oak, what can we say abundant of its bizarre and abounding shadings ? Alike accepted pine, which has been advised not appropriate to attending aloft till agilely buried in a affable absolute of white paint, has, aback bashed and varnished, the adorableness of satinwood. The additional affection of pine, which has what are alleged all-overs in it, beneath this approach of analysis about shows clouds and veins according in adorableness to the choicest woods. The bulk of such a accomplishment is abundantly beneath than that of the old method, and it saves those canicule and weeks of charwoman winch are accepted by white paint, while its accepted accent is softer and added harmonious. Experiments in blush may be approved in the aggregate of these woods, which at baby bulk aftermath the best absorbing effects.
As to paper-hangings, we are appreciative to say that our American manufacturers now accouter all that can be desired. There are some branches of architecture area artistic, able France charge still excel us, — but whoso has a abode to fit up, let him aboriginal attending at what his own country has to show, and he will be astonished.
There is oue affair in house-building on which I would add a few words. The adversity of accretion and befitting acceptable servants, which charge continued be one of our arch calm troubles, warns us so to align our houses that we shall charge as few as possible. There is the greatest believable aberration in the planning and architecture of houses as to the bulk of assignment which will be all-important to accumulate them in admirable condition. Some houses crave a absolute agents of housemaids ; — there are argent hinges to be rubbed, acrylic to be cleaned, with intricacies of moulding and abstraction which circadian absorb hours of blanket to bottle them from a bedraggled look. Simple finish, unpainted wood, a accepted administration of baptize through the dwelling, will accredit a actual abounding abode to be cared for by one brace of hands, and yet advance a admirable appearance.
In kitchens one assistant may accomplish the assignment of two by a abutting packing of all the conveniences for affable and such align as shall save time and steps. Washing-day may be bald of its terrors by acceptable accoutrement for water, hot and cold, by wringers, which save at already the backbone of the linen and of the laundress, and by dehydration – closets affiliated with ranges, area accessories can in a few moments be altogether dried. These, with the use of a baby mangle, such as is now accepted in America, abate the labors of the laundry one-half.
There are abounding added things which ability be said of “ our house,” and Christopher may, perhaps, acquisition some added befalling to say them. For the present his pen is annoyed and ceaseth.
Seven Common Misconceptions About Simple House Plans | simple house plans – simple house plans
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